Nations of the Livonian war

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In the first years of the Livonian war the Russian forces conquered Eastern Estonia. The southern possessions of Livonian order gave themselves under the Polish protection in 1559 and Saare-Lääne bishopric (located on most of Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Läänemaa) was sold in the same year to Denmark.

In 1561 Tallinn gave itself together with Northern Estonia under the Swedish power, at the end of the same year the order finally surrendered to Poland. The Russian and Danish reign remained short in Estonia and in 1583 at the end of the war Estonia remained as divided between Sweden and Poland, except in Saaremaa which remained to Denmark up to 1645. Poland had the southern part of Estonia up to 1629 when this was transferred to the Swedish possession. Not many Polish settled down in Estonia.

The arrival of catholic clerics to Estonia stuck out most who founded the collegiums of Jesuits in Tartu. In the years of the Livonian war exotic nations also appeared in Estonia: the Tatars having served in the troops of the Russians and other eastern nations. The Swedes brought also Scottish also as the salaried warriors to Estonia.

On the photo: the earlier preserved Livonian map from the year 1573.

Jüri Viikberg. Eesti rahvaste raamat. Eesti entsüklopeediakirjastus: Tallinn 1999;
Ilmar Talve. Eesti kultuurilugu. Keskaja algusest Eesti iseseisvuseni. Ilmamaa: Tartu 2004

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